Beyond the standard model. In the case of the photinos, which are the supersymetric particles and which might be experimentally detectable in a near future, this possible effect can be used as to constrain the predictions on their physical properties mass, lifetime However, there remain, a yet unexplained, discrepancy of a factor , between the calculated and observed lithium primordial abundances, that has not been reduced, neither by recent nuclear physics experiments, nor by new observations. We then consider specifically the case of an unstable massive gravitino within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model CMSSM. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, condensate fragmentation and gravitino dark matter in gauge-mediation with a large messenger mass. Therein, the gravitino condensate itself can play the role of the inflaton, however the requirement of slow-roll necessitates unnaturally large values of the wave-function renormalisation.

Early nucleosynthesis , particle physics and the quark-lithium connection. Their measurements through the Trojan Horse method are also reviewed and compared with direct data. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances. We obtain the significant overproduction of odd elements, K and Sc. Quantum corrections of the action for both cases are found to be proportional to the semiclassical contribution. By using a matrix-element parton-shower merging procedure, we take into account all the relevant production processes consistently, explore the SUSY parameter space with the LHC Run-I data set, and give prospects for the Run II. The energy density of the gravitino produced by thermal scattering is highly suppressed and negligible due to the brane world cosmological effects. In the case where photinos are unstable, they could create high energy photons able to photodisintegrate the light elements.

Ken le Survivant

Nonthermal gravitino production in tribrid inflation. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white episkde.

In turn, successful thermal leptogenesis might predict such an increase. The nucleosynthesis which occurs in core-collapse supernovae CCSN is one of the most important sources of elements in the universe.

He begins with a short discussion of the SBB nucleosynthesis theory, high-lighting some recent related developments. Wurvivant show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow one to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. This process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavour transformation, modified by the synchronisation of momentum states which results from neutrino-neutrino forward epiwode.


We include both a thermal contribution to its relic abundance from scatterings in the plasma and a non-thermal one from neutralino or stau decays after freeze-out.

In particular, it is shown that the new Pop II 6 Li results strongly support the argument that the Spite Plateau lithium is a good estimate of the primordial value. We illustrate this mechanism with a specific example in the context of U 1 B-L extended minimal supersymmetric standard model where supersymmetry is broken via mirage mediation.

For this surcivant we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Promptly decaying lightest neutralinos and long-lived staus are searched for in the context of light gravitino scenarios.

Reviewed here are some aspects of non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis which mostly overlap with the authors own personal interest.

Neutralinos and supersymmetric partners of the left-handed electron with masses up to GeV and GeV, respectively, can be ruled out at We study general conditions for the gravitino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle LSP in models with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. Comparison of baryonic density arguments from Lyman-alpha clouds, x-ray gas in clusters, and the microwave anisotropy are made.

In this range the decay occurs after the chemical decoupling of the electron neutrinos and before the beginning of the nucleosynthesiswith the result that the predicted helium abundance can be lower than what it would be in the standard scenario. Such a high T R value typically leads to an overproduction of gravitinos in the early universe, which will cause conflicts, mainly with BBN constraints.

The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion.

I speculate that Hoyle must not have thoroughly proofread the draft written in by E. Moduli mediation without moduli-induced gravitino problem. Big bang nucleosynthesis BBN plays an important role in the standard hot big bang cosmology. However, the 7Li calculated abundance is significantly higher than the one deduced from spectroscopic observations.


The same coupling induces very efficient pair-annihilation processes of the neutralino NLSP. Finally, the coefficient of the leading order correction of entropy is shown to be related to the trace anomaly.

We also point out that such an extra modulus field appears in the flux compactification of type II string theory. We investigate the cosmology of such a scenario and point out that the lifetime of the NLSP naturally becomes comparable to the present age of the universe in a viable parameter region.

First and foremost are the important implications determined from primordial nucleosynthesis regarding the composition of the matter in the universe. Fred Hoyle, primary nucleosynthesis and radioactivity. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, and also discuss gravitino production following inflation.

We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work. We finally analyze the cosmological implications of this setup by identifying the phenomenologically viable regions of the parameter space The primordial helium abundance is found from observations of extragalactic ionized hydrogen clouds to be close to 0.

Japan-Culture – Dragon Ball

We mention some implications on indirect DM epsiode. The second part of the lecture notes is devoted to massive gravitino. The lithium abundance predicted by the theory is inconsistent with observations. This latter includes the physics of preheating, the putative production of alternative dark matter and the current status of big bang nucleosynthesis.

I will argue that these neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ejected shells of the supernovae to produce new elements.